• The Johnson Controls lead-acid battery recycling center in Florence, South Carolina, is supported by an industrial wastewater and stormwater treatment system, designed and constructed by CDM Smith.

file under: Design-Build, Environment, Industrial, North America, United States, Water, Water Reuse

Manufacturing + Design-Build

The Power of Recycling

Integrating stormwater and industrial wastewater treatment for Johnson Controls

Batteries are a ubiquitous power source, energizing everything from watches and toys to computers and cars. The typical automotive lead acid battery contains about 22 pounds of lead and must be properly disposed of to protect public health and the environment, but the lead and other components can be reclaimed for reuse. Johnson Controls’ new lead-acid battery recycling center in Florence, South Carolina, plays an important role in that mission, recycling 132,000 metric tons per year—the equivalent of more than 14 million automotive batteries. CDM Smith supported this progressive environmental stewardship through the fast-track design-build implementation of the center’s stormwater and industrial wastewater treatment plant. Collectively, this integrated treatment system employs modern environmental controls to protect the public and the environment while advancing Johnson Controls’ recycling capabilities.

Integrated Approach
The dual treatment system collects and treats the center’s industrial process wastewater and the site’s stormwater runoff. To meet permit limits for safe discharge, the wastewater treatment system treats the recycling center’s process effluent with chemical pretreatment and pH adjustment, clarification and sand filtration. A portion of the treated effluent is reused onsite, with excess discharged to the publicly owned treatment works. The advanced system provides for variable wastewater treatment by using an equalization (EQ) storage tank to test wastewater influent and adjust pre-treatment chemicals for treatment optimization. A dilute electrolyte tank and pumping system can receive more concentrated wastewater, which is fed into the treatment facility at a controlled rate and avoids expensive offsite removal.

Johnson Controls facility 3d modelThe compact integrated system collects and treats the center’s industrial process wastewater and the site’s stormwater runoff, employing modern environmental controls to protect the public and the environment, allow for water reuse and reduce dependence on municipal and groundwater supplies.The state-of-the-art facility also addresses Johnson Controls’ unique zero-discharge stormwater requirement. “To protect the scenic Great Pee Dee River, we made a commitment that the recycling center would not discharge any stormwater,” states Timothy Lafond, Johnson Controls executive director, environmental engineering. Stormwater from factory roofs and non-roofed areas adjacent to the air pollution control systems is collected and stored in a 2.3-million-gallon, high-density, polyethylene-lined impoundment. Impounded water is treated for debris and potential contamination with basket strainers and multimedia sand filtration and used as the lead smelter scrubber make-up water. “This stormwater treatment system, built to contain a 100-year storm event, even surpasses existing groundwater quality and reduces spray nozzle maintenance.”

A Second Life
Approximately 23,000 gallons a day, 30 to 40 percent of influent flow, of treated wastewater effluent is reused for wheel washing, facility cleaning and toilets—daily displacing 6,000 gallons of municipal potable water and 17,000 gallons of groundwater from the onsite well field. An additional 35,600 gallons a day of stormwater is treated and reclaimed, primarily for scrubber makeup water that is subsequently treated by the wastewater treatment process. The system not only protects the environment, but provides beneficial water reuse and reduces dependence on municipal supplies. Even dewatered sludge is recycled onsite for reclamation of metals, further reducing environmental impact.

On the Fast Track
Johnson Controls treatment facility interiorThe treatment system, which can be easily expanded by 60,000 gallons per day for a total capacity of 150,000 gallons per day, has redundant pumps, alarms and instrument panels, and effluent can be recycled and retreated to meet treatment specifications.Design-build was selected to accelerate the facility’s delivery, allowing it to be online within 10 months. “This goal was accomplished even with significant scope changes—changes resulting from our identification of necessary technical elements not included in the original project scope—that were successfully incorporated into the design to meet the expedited schedule,” describes Paul Sinisgalli, CDM Smith vice president. Speeding implementation was a carefully coordinated construction schedule that had all major equipment installed directly after building slab completion and framing erection and prior to wall panel installation. Additionally, schedule coordination allowed the various building trades to complete their work in a small footprint while avoiding conflicts.

To accommodate the site’s complex hydrology, the facility’s foundation and 105,000-gallon wastewater EQ tank can withstand potentially extreme settlements from a seasonally high groundwater table, extensive clay deposits and perched groundwater. Additionally, the impoundment’s underdrain system prevents liner floating by reclaiming seasonal high groundwater for treatment and reuse. Says Lafond, “CDM Smith’s intelligent design and well-orchestrated delivery approach addressed several project challenges, including a very aggressive schedule, difficult landscape, variable treatment and a strict budget.” CDM Smith provided startup services, operator training, and an operations and maintenance manual, and is providing the facility’s supervising operator.

Facing the Future
With long-term reliability in mind, the flexible design allows treatment capacity to be easily expanded to 60,000-gallon-per-day if it is needed to meet demand. Beyond recycling, Johnson Controls’ operation supports community resources and represents a local economic commitment, employing 250 new and 1,000 indirect area jobs. “This integrated, robust solution sets a new industry standard for stormwater and wastewater treatment. It is a world-class project—one that reflects our commitment to environmental protection, the local economy and responsible battery production,” remarks Lafond. It is proof that recycling, whether batteries or water, can have a powerful and lasting effect.

Related Solutions